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Ultrasonic accelerate the chemical reaction

Ultrasonic accelerate the chemical reaction
For nearly 20 years, ultrasonic accelerated chemical reaction has been evidenced by the large number of experiments, and widely used in the chemical, petroleum, metallurgy, coal, electronics, medicine, building
Materials, light industry and other laboratory areas. The ultrasonic method for chemical reactions, as compared with conventional methods with a simple operation, a chemical reaction under mild conditions, the reaction time is reduced
Short, the reaction yield is improved, and under normal conditions is difficult or impossible to achieve the chemical reaction to provide a new and very special physical and chemical environment, opens up new
The chemical reaction method. Commonly used laboratory mini ultrasonic cleaner ultrasonic reaction instrument.

The basic principle of the ultrasonic accelerate chemical reactions

So far, the ultrasonic speed up chemical reactions is still not conclusive, but generally accepted in general the following points:

1, cavitation role. May be the key to accelerate chemical reactions, i.e. the formation and rupture of the micro-bubbles in the liquid medium and accompanied by the release of energy. Cavitation produced
Raw moment there is a strong vibration wave implosion, resulting in a short-term high-energy environment (It is calculated in the nanosecond time intervals up to 2000-3000 ℃ and hundreds of atmospheres). Use
Ultrasonic high frequency vibration and cavitation pressure, high temperature effect to accelerate the chemical reaction proceeds, prompting the two liquids, two kinds of solid or liquid - solid, liquid - gas interface between fat
Health mutual penetration of molecules, open the chemical bonds to form new substances attributes. Also through the nature of the sound absorption, media and containers resonance caused by two effects, such as
Emulsification, macro-heating effects to further accelerate the chemical reaction.

2, the active material generated from the solvent or reagent in the cavitation bubbles burst, such as ions and radicals, ions and radicals competition exists, there may produce
The same product.

3, the destruction of ultrasound on the structure of the chemical solvent. Ultrasonic single effect or result of the role, making the chemical reaction rate of the reaction system greatly increases

4, in the cavitation bubbles oscillate periodically or chipping process will produce a short local high temperature, high pressure, the speed of heating and cooling rate is greater than 1010Ks, and generates a strong electric field,
Causing many mechanical, thermal, chemical, biological effects, and to accelerate the chemical reaction.

Ultrasonic applications that speed up chemical reactions

1, in the electrochemical reaction. Ultrasonic electric analysis of the chemical, ultrasonic electrochemiluminescence analysis, ultrasonic electrochemical synthesis, ultrasonic electroplating. Ultrasound
The combination of wave and the electrochemical reaction has many potential advantages, these advantages include the cleaning and degassing of the surface of the electrode, the electrode surface to passivation, the erosion of the electrode surface; accelerating
Liquid mass transfer; accelerate the chemical reaction rate; Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence; change the electrical yield of the synthesis reaction.

2, the chemical in the catalytic reaction. Ultrasonic as a special role of energy in the form of heat, light and ion radiation, there is a significant difference. Ultrasonic wave
Cavitation short time, releasing a high energy, for example, in high temperature conditions, is conducive to a cleavage of the reactive species and the formation of free radicals, thereby forming a more reactive reactant
Species, there are conducive to the secondary reactions, to improve the rates of chemical reactions. Meanwhile, the high pressure generated when the bubbles collapse, on the one hand, there are conducive to a high pressure in the gas phase reaction, and the other
Surface, due to the high-pressure existence caused by shock waves and micro-jet phenomenon in solid-liquid systems play a very good impact, in particular, led to strong intermolecular collisions and aggregation
On the solid surface morphology, surface composition has a very important role. In summary, the influence of ultrasound for a chemical reaction, not a direct effect in the molecule, but indirectly affect
Chemical reaction, and this effect is particularly evident for the catalytic reaction system.

3, in the water treatment process. Ultrasonic technology applied to biodegradable toxic organic pollutants, mainly when the ultrasonic irradiation water environment, its high energy output
Vortex bubble that will produce high temperature and pressure inside the bubble state water molecules to generate strong oxidizing hydroxyl radicals, these radicals for a variety of organic compounds
A high reaction rate, the oxidation can be decomposed into the other relatively simple molecules, eventually generate CO2 and H2O. Lot of facts that, sound and chemical treatment method of treating wastewater
-Biodegradable toxic organic pollutants fruitful phase of the multi-phase reaction system for the organic phase water, the use of ultrasonic irradiation, emulsified liquid through staggered hours
The area of ​​contact, and fast chemical reactions, can also occur even in the absence of a catalyst under the conditions of the reaction. Organics after treatment by ultrasound decomposition product with a high-temperature incineration

4, in nanofabrication applications. In recent years, sonochemical methods have become a useful technique for the preparation of new materials with specific properties. Acoustic cavitation caused
Special physical and chemical environment for scientists nanomaterials provides important way. Sonochemical decomposition high boiling solvent in the volatile organometallic precursor,
Nanostructured materials can be obtained having a high catalytic performance in various forms mainly in the preparation method, the ultrasonic atomization decomposition method, a metal organic ultrasonic decomposition method, chemical
Learn precipitated harmonies electrochemical method.

As can be seen, the ultrasonic accelerate chemical reactions applied research has very broad, almost have different degrees of promoting effect on the various types of chemical reactions, but also and
The non All studies are positive results. As in the following chemical reaction, using toluene as solvent ultrasonic its role, such as when using water as the solvent with a slight vice
Role (the yield was reduced from 19% to 13%). Ultrasonic is not the role of the chemical reaction. Ultrasonic applications also lack of theoretical guidance, although
So, the role of ultrasound accelerates a chemical reaction or obvious. We have reason to believe that in the near future, both in theory and in application, ultrasonic
Boomed method will become an important tool for the study of accelerated chemical reaction.Ultrasonic accelerate the chemical reaction

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